12at7 Cathode Follower


It truly is an integrated amp. Ampeg's circuit gets feedback from the plate and is therefore known as a plate follower. This is actually the anode to cathode voltage, so the true cathode voltage will be 285 - 100 = 185V. A cathode follower will present a very light load to the 12AU7 so with 47k plate resistor and 220k load and bypassed cathode resistor of 1. The RIAA components are 1% tolerance, with RIAA capacitors being polystyrene dielectric. For the ‘modern’ guitar player interested in a ‘raw’ tone for classic Rock ‘n’ Roll or Blues, these heads are still hard to beat. Really the same valve, BUT, it has a heater to cathode limit of 200 volts!. first transmitter band org filter 8. That’s because the second triode in the 12AX7 acts as a cathode follower stage; the gain of a cathode follower is usually 1, or slightly less than 1, its purpose is to provide a low impedance to the following stage. Plastering a new finish coat sand finish and texture, Plastering tips to minimize cracking stucco - Duration: 1:01:29. The third tube, a duo-triode 12AT7 V 3 functions as a phase inverter and push-pull output stage. The VFO uses a 12AU7, the 2 nd section as a cathode follower. One half of a 12AT7 tube, V105A, is connected in a conven- tional cathode-follower circuit arrangement. The ECC81 Gallery 12AT7 E81CC 6201 ECC801S Lorenz ECC81. 5K cathode resistor -- then the 12AT7 will behave something like a 12AX7 with an 820R cathode resistor: Lots of clean headroom; little chance of distortion. theres also emitters, but i wont go there. The box also holds an OA2 150v voltage stabiliser. 3V and the 12AZ7A draws 450mA. 0: 6AS7: 21: Amplifier for Dynamic Headphones: Some commentary. The greater the transconductance, the lower the output impedance, as the greater the transconductance, the greater the change in current due to a deviation in output voltage relative to input voltage. Cathode follower - lowering cathode resistor for 12dw7 or ecc823. In this arrangement the second half of a 12AX7 is used as a unity-gain cathode-follower to drive the tone network from a low (Z~1k) impedance, but ~50k from the anode of a gain stage is more common. If you want to tame an amp down, try the 5751 in one of the gain stages (as long as it isn't a cathode follower). In the original and all subsequent versions of the MC275, including this one, a third winding is connected to the plates of the cathode follower driver; this was said to extend the ultra-low distortion over a much greater bandwidth, especially into the high frequencies. Only one transformer is used for modulation. In general terms, a lower output impedance will drive capacitive cables better, and will drive lowish input impedance power amps without bass roll off. Most of the New Sensor Tubes can only handle. Loud, but nothing like a Marshall with 6550. When they are set up as cathode followers, the cathodes can see 150 to 200 volts depending on the design. 150 watts continuous mono. With a cathode follower we are out of luck, but with a plate follower, we need only set the appropriate feedback resistors ratio. Apparently the increased H-K rating is at the expense of lower heater efficiency. Luckily (or unluckily) I don't. com ,the Leading Trading Marketplace from China. 6n1p tube equivalent. Capable of driving a very low impedance. either as a gain stage or as whats called a cathode follower. The basic circuit is rather straightforward: two cascaded gain stages (12AT7 dual triode) followed by a 12AU7 dual triode connected in parallel and configured as a cathode-follower buffer. So a cathode follower is needed to reduce the output impedance. The circuit posted is a common cathode (1'st stage) stage feeding a cathode follower (2'd stage). This circuit topology means the output is taken off the cathode instead of. Low taps digital filter design and ZERO feedback control, we have design this CD player without any local or total feedback control. A filter circuit follows, with the final output passing through optocouplers to the output phono sockets. The signal is further amplified by the traditional 12AX7 powering the JMT 5 cathode-follower tone stack. For the sensitivity ranges 0. Phase Inverter: 2 x 7025 12AT7 (Long Tailed w/ Cathode Follower) Other: Active EQ: 12AU7. 7meg in541 1 12mfd. It’s not a bad idea, but the tube must get its own floating heater power supply and it must be robust enough to pass the grid current. 5abp1 block crx diagram v208b —gate v222 4-3-53 6cb6 6j6 unblanking floating power supply 12au7 *'ate v215 6z7 trigger cathode follower vert. A 12AX7 is rated for a maximum of 180V. First, the cathode follower was not designed for a 12AT7. You could also try a big (220K) gridstop on the 6SL7 cathode follower to prevent that tube going into grid current. · VFO 1/212AX7 12AT7 6U8 vox y,f,vox relay level RLA RV111 V21A V15B V12 2nd VOXamp. The ECC99 is a power triode that delivers big currents at low impedance ideal for KT88, KT90 and 6550 tubes. It has the additional advantage of a high gm, made possible by the comparatively enormous cathodes. With cathode follower grid drivers, the 807 can easily produce some 30W of audio output, though specced at 26. Cathode Follower: 13. A 4 x 12AU7 cathode follower and driver stage connects the 2 x 12AT7 voltage amplification stage to the tetrode power buffer. Instead the 355 provided a cathode follower, line-level, preamp out -- Just add the basic power amp of your choice, usually a Scott Type 208, but Mac's and Dyna's were also popular choices. 3V and the 12AZ7A draws 450mA. The voltage U across C3 goes to a cathode fol­lower shown in fig. The second gain stage is nearly identical to the input stage and is direct coupled to the third stage which is a cathode follower (12AT7). The power supply is solid state and DC is used for the tube heaters. Problem is, the cathode follower circuit can easily see 180V, which is right on the ragged edge of the rating for a. Many of these diy Audio Books contain schematics. The cathodes will try to follow the V1 grid (like a cathode follower circuit). The combination is bold, clear, and thumping, and a fast track to that pummeling Pete Townsh-end rhythm tone circa Live At Leeds (albeit in. That cathode follower does very little, if anything, to the sound. The output tube 12AT7 2 (the following tubes can be used to replace ECC81, 6J8P 6SJ7, 6267, EF86, 6201). The 12AX7 is a hi gain hi Z tube which is happy as a clam at 1mA. Cathode Balanced Tx IF amp Mechanical 1st Txmixer Band pass 2nd Tx mixer follower mod filter filter 1/2 12AX7 1/212AT7 2x0A79 EF183 12AT7 V15A V1B V16 V19 V11 Tone osc. Also, higher current with a lower cathode resistor may over-tax the power supply. I was surprised to hear the significant improvement wrought by each of these tube installations, especially in the follower positions, which are supposed to have less sonic effect. The failure of a “cathode follower“ tube will cause sound dropouts or signal loss. The Split-Load is the simplest arrangement. Were we both wrong? The gain in CF mode would be 1/2. 5% at rated output or less for 20Hz through 20kHz. In both pedals the second triode section makes up a cathode follower—a low impedance tube buffer stage. Make sure that is the tube in the cathode follower socket. One half of a 12AT7 tube, V105A, is connected in a conven- tional cathode-follower circuit arrangement. This set is quite different in that it uses EF80s not 6AM6 and the CRT is an MW53-80. Audio mixers can be analog or digital type. A cathode follower will present a very light load to the 12AU7 so with 47k plate resistor and 220k load and bypassed cathode resistor of 1. Anyway, the W-6M is indeed an improved Williamson. Cathode Follower Drive - Two 12AT7 or 12AZ7 Output - Four KT88 or 6550 2 - Selectable source input for Stereo, Twin-Amp or Mono operation. In the original and all subsequent versions of the MC275, including this one, a third winding is connected to the plates of the cathode follower driver; this was said to extend the ultra-low distortion over a much greater bandwidth, especially into the high frequencies. The cathode follower is normally used as a buffer between a one bit of circuit and another, so the second one does not cause loss of gain or increased distortion by loading down the first one. As supplied, I liked the sound, but there were problems. Rewired 12AT7 Cathode follower for more gain, seems better now. One half of the 12AU7 operates as a traditional voltage amplifier, directly coupled to the other half of the 12AU7 which operates as a cathode follower. C4, C5 Mica. Single Ended: 13. I remember referencing the TILT circuit when I was David Manley's design and prototyping assistant, but I can't quite remember where he got the TILT circuit from. While the driver tube should be an ECC81 family member (12AT7, ECC801, 6201, CV4024, etc. Cathode follower circuits are said to lend the tone a special flavor, as a number of classic guitar amps would go to show. pulse trains may be gated. In a grounded cathode amplifier. The first stage common cathode gain is 50, the second stage common cathode gain is 53, and the third stage buffer stage cathode follower gain is 0. The output of the cathode follower operates a Hewlett-Packard model 405 A special calibration unit (fig. 1% regulation also. the Power Follower original design by Andrea Ciuffoli - 1999 - 2014 After many years this project, published on my my website and on 3 magazines, is continuing to interest many persons in any country. Capable of driving a very low impedance. It's a nice amp head - 3 7025, 1 12at7, and 2 6550. either as a gain stage or as whats called a cathode follower. V2 and V3 are cathode follower positions so I heard the JJ's might have issues there, so I put two Ruby HG Chinese in those spots. 98, which greatly reduces the output impedance and increases the output force, by adding a deep NFB, the closed loop gain is about 11 and the NFB is 47. The amplifier is used as a summing amplifier with a large degree of feedback. 5642 drivers 6au6 drivers 6 aus 6au6 ve04 v12 v13 v14 vert. But in fact a conventional follower may have a substantial distortion. Cathode Followers The poor cathode follower; it gets little respector too much. senx preamp. I'm wondering if E80CC will work on the cathode follower driver positions to replace 12AZ7/12AT7? TY said the mu of E80CC is actually in between 12AT7 and 12A 28: Go here to find 12AZ7's (8. The output triode is arranged as a cathode follower. 57-MHz crystal and 2. This enables the minimum number of valves to make an amplifier, hereby economically rational for mass production when needing to control costs. Additionally, I also found a webpage providing a list of schematics that reproduce. The overall voltage gain of the circuit is about 8. A plate follower's output is 180 degrees out of phase. Based on the Soldano SLO100. 2) Linear 4-Way Splitter/Combiner. Swapping tubes on the fly is a hassle. 98, which greatly reduces the output impedance and increases the output force, by adding a deep NFB, the closed loop gain is about 11 and the NFB is 47. If you do use channel one, this tube is the most critical to tone for that channel. When the video signal is absent, the DC drop across the 22k//5uF cathode load drops to about 4V. The bias of the cathode follower also sets the bias for the 6550’s. With cathode follower grid drivers, the 807 can easily produce some 30W of audio output, though specced at 26. org - wht org-wht red-red-wht vox iom r. Audio mixers can be analog or digital type. 72, or only 0. This transmitter is completely done without transformers. Grade 2 (higher than average microphonics) Not recommended for V1 but good for phase inverters, cathode followers, tremolo tubes, $27. For example, a 6C4 small signal triode could be used to implement a cathode follower. 12AU7's make fantastic PI's and cathode followers. 2) Linear 4-Way Splitter/Combiner. All prices and product information. In this version I used about 850 V in PL 509 plate. Apex 460 mod: catode follower or plate circuit output? by fracasmiq » Thu Apr 10, 2014 7:46 am everything was ok about the APEX 460 modification kit I received few days ago. When a Tung-Sol 12AX7 dies in a cathode follower with 30 volts on the cathode, or in a phase inverter where the cathode might be 80 volts over ground, then it's the tube, not the circuit. Preamp tubes are cathode-biased (well, after the '50's anyway) but a big jump in plate resistance will put the tube out of bias range. The gain of the cathode follower can be approximated using: mu / (mu + 1). 5V output for tape, 2. This thing has 2 6V6 power tubes, 1 5Y3 rectifier, 1 12AT7 used in the phase splitter, and 1 12AX7 for the preamp section. This is possible because the grid is biased negatively compared to the cathode (the negative bias is what allows it to modulate electron flow). Cathode follower output stages provide low line impedance to avoid hum and high frequency losses in the interconnecting audio cables. 2 mA with my 3. The Sovtek 12AX7LP/LPS series has a large plate format that gives a large soundstage with a lot of detail. Cathode Follower Drive - Two 12AT7 or 12AZ7 Output - Four KT88 or 6550 2 - Selectable source input for Stereo, Twin-Amp or Mono operation. For the I-out DAC types allways use 6N2P!. Regular SLO100 tonestack. The Sovtek 12AX7LP/LPS series has a large plate format that gives a large soundstage with a lot of detail. It consists of a 12AT7 oscillator and cathode follower plus and EF80 amplifier. The cathode follower has a very high input resistance. E80CC works for me on the 12AU7 position. V2 and V3 are cathode follower positions so I heard the JJ's might have issues there, so I put two Ruby HG Chinese in those spots. 72, or only 0. 5 dB with a unbypassed cathode and ≈33v/v or 30. This is actually the anode to cathode voltage, so the true cathode voltage will be 285 - 100 = 185V. A 12AX7 is rated for a maximum of 180V. This circuit compensates the bias voltage supplied to the output stage, detecting the cathode current and the driving level. In your typical gain stage designed for a 12AX7, none of these come into play, and so the you can usually swap them and the main difference you will notice is a change in gain. This transmitter is completely done without transformers. Please return the cathode resister of the KT88 to 820 Ohms and adjust the pot by listening to the amplifier’s sound through a speaker. The common cathode stage provides voltage gain but, by it's nature, a cathode follower (2'd stage) has no voltage gain; but does have CURRENT gain, which is why it's used when driving loads (like a tone stack or long, capacitive, preamp cables, etc. The cathode resistor needs to be 220 ohms. The overall voltage gain of the circuit is about 8. brand of choice with this style of amp for rea-sons that were immediately apparent once I plugged the HT50 JP into the Fryette cab. So, enter the 12AZ7. Its tuned using an Eddystone 898 type slow motion drive. It will be lightly loaded—a split-load inverter has the same low input capacitance as a cathode follower, so can have a high input impedance. 6p1 vs el84. And hearing my client play it, he sounds better than I do naturally. To control the frequency means either changing the R, the C, or varying the grid or anode voltages. The first phono stage is directly driven (not resistor- or capacitor-coupled) by the cartridge in the case of moving-magnet cartridges, or by the built-in transformers in the case. The 12AX7, IIRC, has a significantly higher gain than a 12AT7. The voltage U across C3 goes to a cathode fol­lower shown in fig. Really the same valve, BUT, it has a heater to cathode limit of 200 volts!. The PI 2 certainly looks the part, with a nickel-plated capsule grille and base, plus a lovely velvet-lined wood. That cathode follower does very little, if anything, to the sound. C4, C5 Mica. 002C per second flows from the cathode to the plate. cdn$249 ON SALE!!!! Regular $383. Yes, that is confusing as all f*%k. 43) Posted by Morse on 2001-12-19, 16:16:59 (158. A 12AX7 is rated for a maximum of 180V. McIntosh used to employ a powerful double-triode (model 12BH7) as its voltage amplifier, but this assignment has been taken over by the two systems in a 12AT7 (ECC81). Usually 12AX7's have a limitation on the heater voltage (heaters are inside the cathodes) and the voltage on the cathode. Cathode follower = classic tones. The tubes naturally produce pleasing harmonics but each stage (Pentode and Triode) are voiced to produce more and more harmonics and eventually saturation as you drive them harder. 001 62 n x? in541 cath 4. It may solve the problem to replace the 12AX7 with a 12AT7 or other alternative type. Based on the Soldano SLO100. The output triode is arranged as a cathode follower. Share this post: This entry was posted in 12at7/ECC81 by tubemaze. With a cathode follower we are out of luck, but with a plate follower, we need only set the appropriate feedback resistors ratio. Size 12 x 11 x 5-3/4". There's a comprehensive circuit description and even scope readings! (if only we had this for this one!) It describes the EB91s as flywheel sync and AGC, the ECC82 black spotter/cathode follower. The Phono preamplifier I made there is about ten years already, is based on the Marantz Model 7 scheme. In a cathode follower circuit you need to be careful of heater to cathode voltage Vhk and that varies, this time the 12AT7 is the weakest. The 12AT7 being quite common, is. I often use the JJ ECC803 Long-Plate (because I got quite a few of them) in place of a standard ECC83/12AX7, except in the V3 cathose follower position. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. Love my Zeus! One of the few commercially made plate modulated ham rigs where the modulator was designed with a huge surplus of audio power. Note that all voltages on the data sheet and graphs are measured relative to the cathode, so the. This is the purpose of the other half of the 6CG7. Yes, it can present a low impedance source, but only to a high impedance load. The 12AX7WA/WB/WC types hold up better than other 12AX7 tubes in cathode follower circuits where the maximum cathode to heater rating of 100 volts is often exceeded. first transmitter band org filter 8. 0: 12AT7, 6FQ7: 22. But, very little of what goes on inside is done quite like Marshall; rather than the archetypal cathode-follower T-M-B tone stack of the Marshalls (and Fender’s 5F6-A tweed Bassman), Fischer’s EQ stage follows the first preamp stage, with the Volume control placed after. There are four 300B, two per channel, two 6sn7, one each per channel, and a single 12at7 providing gain. One half of the 12AU7 operates as a traditional voltage amplifier, directly coupled to the other half of the 12AU7 which operates as a cathode follower. Summary of Styles and Designs. Most of the New Sensor Tubes can only handle. A 12AX7 is rated for a maximum of 180V. So a cathode follower is needed to reduce the output impedance. Share this post: This entry was posted in 12at7/ECC81 by tubemaze. At the time, a Middle control was added to the Bassman’s cathode-follower tone stack, and the dual rectifiers were abandoned in favor of a single 83 mercury-vapor rectifier tube. Cathode follower output stages provide low line impedance to avoid hum and high frequency losses in the interconnecting audio cables. Looks like a wall wart transformer was used as an output transformer: Single Ended: 14. 0: 6AS7G(2) 3: 2A3 Single Ended cathode follower drive amplifier: 12AT7,6P3P: 166: Transformer Coupled Cathode Follower Driver Stage 6DRT. They are not FAKES so much as VARIANTS. Single Ended: 13. That’s because the second triode in the 12AX7 acts as a cathode follower stage; the gain of a cathode follower is usually 1, or slightly less than 1, its purpose is to provide a low impedance to the following stage. Cathode Follower Output. amplification stage, cathode follower stage, and output stage), achieving a truly involving acoustic expression from the A-100. The Cathode Follower supplies a low impedance signal to the tone stack to keep the tone controls from affecting the amp's output volume too much. The <> Ei ECC83 are special, great treble. Compared to the 12AX7, the 12AU7 (and 12AT7) have much higher power dissipation limits, and, along with a lower output impedance, make for better cathode followers. OT is a 10Kohm primary (I measured it) with ultralinear taps. But running them in a '12AT7' slot in a reverb tank won't stress them any more than normal. The listening result feedback is different, sometimes excellent, sometimes so far so good and somebody said it is too sharp and a cathode follower should be added to make the sound warmer. Re: Is it OK to use a 12at7 in PI of BE100 Sun, Feb 14, 2016 3:29am. With the cathode follower, the output impedance would roughly equal to 1/(tube's transconductance). Specifically, in a 12AX7 tube used as a “cathode follower”, the voltage difference between that present at the cathode, as compared with the heater voltage, can be withstood or tolerated by certain types of tubes, whereas other tubes will fail. The mu-follower is a totem-pole topology in which a cathode follower sits on top of a common-grounded cathode gain stage. 5 dB with a unbypassed cathode and ≈33v/v or 30. cathode at any time. Contact [email protected] to discuss your application specifically. The heater to cathode voltage limitation of the 12AT7, 90 volts, is an annoyance. 5K cathode resistor -- then the 12AT7 will behave something like a 12AX7 with an 820R cathode resistor: Lots of clean headroom; little chance of distortion. High Level Gain 18dB. A circuit with no gain is reminiscent of a cathode follower, 3 which gets local feedback from the cathode. 00 Catalog's Front Page. simon wrote: The Broskie Cathode Follower is different, I use it to take a balanced signal and convert it to SE in my DAC buffer. There are four 300B, two per channel, two 6sn7, one each per channel, and a single 12at7 providing gain. 5V output for tape, 2. theres also emitters, but i wont go there. The actual element of the 1st stage tube, which has the constant current source function as well, can be a voltage-amplifier pentode, a BJT, or a FET [where BJT Bipolar. Different brand 12AX7 or 12AT7 tubes can be installed in the 1st. This preamplifier replaces the Unlimited and fills the void with lots of upgrades including an ALPS remote volume control as stock. Frequency shaping is accomplished with 3 triode-based resonant filters that vary the amp gain (each band can be adjusted ±12dB). Think of a cathode follower like a grounded cathode amplifier in that the grid modulates conduction through the tube and load resistor. Most of the New Sensor Tubes can only handle. 12AT7 / ECC81 The MESA 12AT7 is a premium grade, classic low gain preamp tube most often used as a reverb driver and/or phase inverter in older amplifiers - It is used as a reverb driver in older MESA/Boogie designs, such as the Studio Preamp and some Mark Series amplifiers. Cx APC air variable. 3V and the 12AZ7A draws 450mA. The listening result feedback is different, sometimes excellent, sometimes so far so good and somebody said it is too sharp and a cathode follower should be added to make the sound warmer. 4k will give an output voltage of 29 volts peak and a voltage gain of 12. While the driver tube should be an ECC81 family member (12AT7, ECC801, 6201, CV4024, etc. The box also holds an OA2 150v voltage stabiliser. © 1998 - 2014 Eurotubes Inc. We use the nice parts in here!. The Split-Load is the simplest arrangement. This set is quite different in that it uses EF80s not 6AM6 and the CRT is an MW53-80. amp ef 183 balanced modulator 12at7 l,s. 12A-series etc, preamps 12AT7, 12AY7, 12AX7, ECC81/3/4 you may as well go the whole hog and wire it in as a cathode-follower driver for the tonestack, or the. If you want to tame an amp down, try the 5751 in one of the gain stages (as long as it isn't a cathode follower). Also, as the cathode voltage increases, the V2 grid remains fixed at its bias voltage. In order to optimize this well-known installation, I chose Mcap / Mundorf / Audyn Cap and Stiroflex capacitors. Rewired 12AT7 Cathode follower for more gain, seems better now. In true pentode operation, grid number 2 is at a fixed voltage relative to the cathode, even when the pentode is used a cathode follower circuit. Many audiophiles discount it instantly, believing that it is a sonic blight. why low rp tubes and cathode follower circuit work for preamplifier output stage 왜 프리앰프 출력단에는 낮은 플레이트 내부저항을 가진 진공관이 필요할까요. But running them in a '12AT7' slot in a reverb tank won't stress them any more than normal. It may be compared to a 12AT7 or a 6SN7 and it will work also with a supply voltage of +100VDC up. What happened? Is it the R K, R AK and R L value come by guess is not appropriate and has to be fine tuned?. Single Ended: 13. A cathode follower will present a very light load to the 12AU7 so with 47k plate resistor and 220k load and bypassed cathode resistor of 1. Next on my agenda is a conversion of Shanling CD Player from 6922 to 6H6P and then from tube triode cathode follower buffer to a true lampizator status. Ecc85 vs ecc83. A 12AX7 is rated for a maximum of 180V. RIAA is on a feedback loop. 150 watts continuous mono. by a cathode follower which maintains open loop phase linearity at high frequencies. Basically, if you swap a 12AT7 into that circuit -- 300VDC supply; 100K plate resistor; 1. A way to view the gain of V1a is that the input voltage at the control grid appears across the cathode resistor due to 'follower' action so the mutual conductance g m of the valve with R k is a lower value g mk ≈ 1/R k and the gain A v = g mk xR L ' = R L '/R k ~ For higher gains by using lower value R k the total R L ' is also reduced by r a. Spiral filament 12AX7 tubes have problems in cathode follower circuits due to the fact that most cathode follower circuits in guitar amplifiers exceed the maximum cathode to heater rating of 100 volts. 047 uF coupling cap from the plate of the second half of the 'AX7 to the grid of the 6C4 with a 470 k grid resistor to ground, a 1. This enables the minimum number of valves to make an amplifier, hereby economically rational for mass production when needing to control costs. This is a simple viable option for increasing clean headroom in many amps that use DCCF circuits (the many derivatives of the 5F6A Bassman). 12AU7's make fantastic PI's and cathode followers. the other thing you need to know is that theres 2 more common ways of running a preamp tube. There are only a few DHT preamps out there (you can just about count on one hand) and this is one of the few that utilize the 300B. pulse trains may be gated. Inputlevel set controls for the auxiliary inputs are associated with this section. 3 - Output is rated at 75 watts continuous per channel in Stereo or Twin configuration. cathode follower "13 zooo carrier soov carrier control 'sc'. 4k will give an output voltage of 29 volts peak and a voltage gain of 12. Tube V 2 is a duo-triode cathode follower which serves to isolate the output capacitance of the first stage from the input capacitance of the third stage. The line section is a mu-follower using two 6SN7 sections per channel. Another big part of the problem lies with the nature of the cathode follower itself. Anyway, the W-6M is indeed an improved Williamson. Subject to availability). The 12AZ7A is almost identical except the H-K rating is +/- 200V peak. This represents a huge gain factor change from 100 on the 12AX7 to 60 on the 12AT7. The third tube, a duo-triode 12AT7 V 3 functions as a phase inverter and push-pull output stage. 2 x 12AX7 + cathode follower (IRF820 source follower). It will be released for production soon. Single Ended: 13. Put both pairs of your old tubes in and listen for a while to get a good handle on the sound. Wanted to ask, on v2, the Cathode Follower, seems to not like tubes with spiral filaments. The last blog entries mentioned the trick of making cathode followers on the cheap. A DISCLAIMER_ THE 6N6P IS NOT SUITABLE FOR LAMPIZATORS WORKING DIRECTLY WITH CURRENT OUTPUT DAC CHIPS LIKE TDA1541A. Equipped with sophisticated power supply which provides four independent DC power supplies. We could even afford to use a lower gain second gain tube such as a 12AY7 or 12AT7. Please return the cathode resister of the KT88 to 820 Ohms and adjust the pot by listening to the amplifier’s sound through a speaker. 12A-series etc, preamps 12AT7, 12AY7, 12AX7, ECC81/3/4 you may as well go the whole hog and wire it in as a cathode-follower driver for the tonestack, or the. This circuit compensates the bias voltage supplied to the output stage, detecting the cathode current and the driving level. The 6BQ7 also has a μ-Factor that falls nicely between types like the 12AU7 or 6FQ7, and the 12AT7. 6n1p tube equivalent. Optimized for the 12BH7 "super-tube", and can use 12AU7, 12AT7, 12AY7, and 12AX7. 12AT7 & 12AU7 normally operate at much higher current vs 12AX7s & 5751s. A pair of 811's modulating a 120 watt carrier from a 4X150 PA. With cathode follower grid drivers, the 807 can easily produce some 30W of audio output, though specced at 26. These are much larger than those of other small signal types like the 12AU7, 6FQ7, 6SN7, 6C4. 12A-series etc, preamps 12AT7, 12AY7, 12AX7, ECC81/3/4 you may as well go the whole hog and wire it in as a cathode-follower driver for the tonestack, or the. The output tube in this configuration provides both voltage and current amplification. Real warm, clean sound. In this version I used about 850 V in PL 509 plate. Auto-adaptive active bias constantly monitors power stage bias, output voltage and cathode current. 5-MC IF Amplifier Electron Tube, type 6BE6; Second Mixer Electron Tube, type 6EA8; VFO, Cathode Follower Electron Tube, type 6DC6; 1650-KC IF Amplifier Electron Tube, type 6EA8; Third Mixer, SSB-Switching Crystal Oscillator. The greater the transconductance, the lower the output impedance, as the greater the transconductance, the greater the change in current due to a deviation in output voltage relative to input voltage. So a cathode follower is needed to reduce the output impedance. Based on the Soldano SLO100. Filament supply floated 80V above chassis ground for quieter operation and longer tube life. This is the maximum voltage that the valve can see between the heater and the cathode (known as the "heater-cathode voltage"). web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. The MX-99 is self powered, and includes low impedance cathode follower outputs. As it turns out, some of the Chinese tubes have some construction differences that help them survive a Cathode Follower circuit better than many Russian tubes and more to the point to this. " The Bloke's control layout is unusual but simple, and it's also easy to get to grips with. The 12AU7 and 12AX7 have a 180 volts limit. The Sovtek 12AX7LP/LPS series has a large plate format that gives a large soundstage with a lot of detail. 5-MC IF Amplifier Electron Tube, type 6BE6; Second Mixer Electron Tube, type 6EA8; VFO, Cathode Follower Electron Tube, type 6DC6; 1650-KC IF Amplifier Electron Tube, type 6EA8; Third Mixer, SSB-Switching Crystal Oscillator. 8k/1W cathode resistor to ground, a 35 uF non-polarized low-leakage electrolytic cap from the cathode of the 6C4 to the input of the balanced modulator through a 2. We use the nice parts in here!. The cathode follower operates with 100% negative (voltage) feedback, which makes it exceptionally linear and minimises the output resistance. Early Fender Bassmans, the Marshall JTM and several Vox amps were all. Verified purchase: Yes. Cathode follower = classic tones. Anyway, the W-6M is indeed an improved Williamson. The cathode follower is normally used as a buffer between a one bit of circuit and another, so the second one does not cause loss of gain or increased distortion by loading down the first one. 5642 drivers 6au6 drivers 6 aus 6au6 ve04 v12 v13 v14 vert. A circuit with no gain is reminiscent of a cathode follower, 3 which gets local feedback from the cathode. missionamps. The cathode with it's relatively high 22k resistance load and 5uF filter capacitor works as a cathode envelope detector and follower. All prices and product information. V2 and V3 are cathode follower positions so I heard the JJ's might have issues there, so I put two Ruby HG Chinese in those spots. Problem is, the cathode follower circuit can easily see 180V, which is right on the ragged edge of the rating for a. Four more tubes, a 6AL5 and three 12AT7's, comprise a logic circuit which determines which channel drives the output at any given moment. ), the cathode follower can be almost any small signal triode tube – almost, because once you choose the socket and the basing connections, there is little variation possible – 5687 is one example - and of course you have to keep in mind the operating. com ,the Leading Trading Marketplace from China. 2 x 12AT7 – First-stage amplifier 2 x 12AU7 – Current supply for first-stage amplifier 2 x 6DJ8/6922 – Output stage cathode follower 6 x 12AX7 – Phono preamplifier section IMPORTANT: USING YOUR VACUUM TUBE PREAMPLIFIER • Do not unplug an interconnect while the preamplifier is on. The Czech engineer Jiri Vackar introduced the design in 1949*. 72 volts between grid and cathode would still be needed for 1 volt at the output, so we would need 2. Regular SLO100 tonestack. was the originally supplied tube to Fender in the 1950s if you want to be period-correct. If this were my amp I would probably change the tone stack myself, maybe set it up like an old Marshall by adding a cathode follower circuit. A 12AU7 can take a much higher amount of plate current than a 12AX7 so by substituting the "12AU7" side, you increase the gain and lower the headroom, and an SVT already has TONS of gain. Hence, their popularity in the output circuits of many preamplifiers. High Level Gain 18dB. The cathode follower stage uses its very low impedance to drive the tone circuit, but it also contributes a lot to the distortion. In another thread, Robert Parent mentioned changing out the 12AX7 tubes in a Tube Works pre-amp for 12AT7 or 12AU7 tubes. This is much better than a boring plain ol' cathode follower. So a cathode follower is needed to reduce the output impedance. The 12AX7WA/WB/WC types hold up better than other 12AX7 tubes in cathode follower circuits where the maximum cathode to heater rating of 100 volts is often exceeded. Compared to the bacchanalia of transformers and tubes of the PM845/PB101 combo, the AN300B is a minimalist exercise. The Vackar series-tuned v. Better yet, the overall gain of the combination of grounded cathode volt- age amplifier and split-load inverter will have double the gain of the same voltage. The cathode follower is normally used as a buffer between a one bit of circuit and another, so the second one does not cause loss of gain or increased distortion by loading down the first one. tweed-Fender-derived cathode-follower tone control is used very differently). The other half of the 12AT7 operates as an actively loaded hybrid shunt regulator for the voltage amplifier, giving the driver stage great extension of both bass and treble information. When they are set up as cathode followers, the cathodes can see 150 to 200 volts depending on the design. 22 stereo balance 10k il 25 820mmf 5% matri) ech. Note: the price are not include all tubes! just one assembeld preamp board. NOBLE audiophile-grade level and balance pots. To control the frequency means either changing the R, the C, or varying the grid or anode voltages. I'm afraid it doesn't mean much to me – but I have been able to ascertain that it is a full tube output. The 12AT7 is probably a cathode follower (or something like that, someone correct me if I’m wrong). V3 is the cathode follower position, and the tube used here needs to be tough. The cathode follower has very high input resistance, and low input capacitance because it does not suffer from the Miller effect. Additionally, I also found a webpage providing a list of schematics that reproduce. Seems to have problems with voltages over 250 volts DC. The MX-99 is self powered, and includes low impedance cathode follower outputs. The Czech engineer Jiri Vackar introduced the design in 1949*. Were we both wrong? The gain in CF mode would be 1/2. First tube the 12AY7 preamp or the 12AX7 or 5751 voltage amp, Second and third tubes are 12AX7 drivers. Fisher Aug 8 '16 at 17:56. 0: 6AS7: 21: Amplifier for Dynamic Headphones: Some commentary. Kt88 ultra linear schematic. The basic circuit is rather straightforward: two cascaded gain stages (12AT7 dual triode) followed by a 12AU7 dual triode connected in parallel and configured as a cathode-follower buffer. The original topology was a Williamson-type amp with the typical rotary input selector switch, Bass, Treble and Volume controls. Think of a cathode follower like a grounded cathode amplifier in that the grid modulates conduction through the tube and load resistor. May 11, 2017 - 12AU7 / ECC82 Cathode Follower Tube Preamplifier Schematic. This thing has 2 6V6 power tubes, 1 5Y3 rectifier, 1 12AT7 used in the phase splitter, and 1 12AX7 for the preamp section. A 12AU7 can take a much higher amount of plate current than a 12AX7 so by substituting the "12AU7" side, you increase the gain and lower the headroom, and an SVT already has TONS of gain. The 12AX7 cathode follower, the tone stack, the long-tailed-pair phase splitter, the push-pull power amplifier, and the power supply. This is the purpose of the other half of the 6CG7. Filament supply floated 80V above chassis ground for quieter operation and longer tube life. The Shrimp can drive anything, not to worry. Here is how it goes: 0. You can change tubes to vary the preamplifier gain. The 12AX7 is a hi gain hi Z tube which is happy as a clam at 1mA. I got rid of the clean option and added a very useful bright pot. This is just a DC amplifier with a voltage gain very close to +1, and a low output impedance. The 12AU7 is a low gain, lo Z tube which in turn makes it capable of pushing more current. But, I can get used to this. The first stage common cathode gain is 50, the second stage common cathode gain is 53, and the third stage buffer stage cathode follower gain is 0. V2 provides the second of your dirty channel gain stages, and the first half of the cathode follower circuit. 2e26 tube 2e26 tube. Included parts/components, PCB/kit, DIY, vacuum tubes, loudspeaker, amplifier. 5% at rated output or less for 20Hz through 20kHz. Sound stage was just out of the is world! Try to stay with the same type in the chain, but no harm in going with different types for Driver & Cathode Follower. Many audiophiles discount it instantly, believing that it is a sonic blight. So the cathode follower's output impedance would be at about 322ohms Components selection : 5814A tube from JAN Philips. We use the nice parts in here!. While the driver tube should be an ECC81 family member (12AT7, ECC801, 6201, CV4024, etc. It's held fixed by C2, so the V2 grid-to-cathode voltage decreases, which decreases the. Early Fender Bassmans, the Marshall JTM and several Vox amps were all. If you google "russian tubes fail in cathode follower" you'll get plenty of hits. · VFO 1/212AX7 12AT7 6U8 vox y,f,vox relay level RLA RV111 V21A V15B V12 2nd VOXamp. This will not work for the Phase Inverter or Cathode Follower in most amps, as it requires more current capability. Frequency shaping is accomplished with 3 triode-based resonant filters that vary the amp gain (each band can be adjusted ±12dB). This is much better than a boring plain ol' cathode follower. For a common tube Out+ such as ECC88, for example, Z will be approximately 100-200Q, a much more attractive figure than even the ex- otic differential amplifier. The 12AX7WA/WB/WC types hold up better than other 12AX7 tubes in cathode follower circuits where the maximum cathode to heater rating of 100 volts is often exceeded. One triode section of V1 operates as a cathode follower, the other triode section as a grounded -grid amplifier. 90v c item v4 tube ecc8 1 12at7 ec92 6ab4 6 au6 ech84 12ax 10000 5 9 normal beacon 15k stereo indicator 390k 5% r30 1. NOBLE audiophile-grade level and balance pots. (I cleaned out my office last year and threw out, among many other things, my old dog-eared RCA tube manual -- why would I ever need this again, I. Specifically, in a 12AX7 tube used as a “cathode follower”, the voltage difference between that present at the cathode, as compared with the heater voltage, can be withstood or tolerated by certain types of tubes, whereas other tubes will fail. 4k will give an output voltage of 29 volts peak and a voltage gain of 12. The bias of the cathode follower also sets the bias for the 6550’s. The first phono stage is directly driven (not resistor- or capacitor-coupled) by the cartridge in the case of moving-magnet cartridges, or by the built-in transformers in the case. AM-FM tuning meter, AFC and defeat, and low impedance cathode follower output. That cathode follower does very little, if anything, to the sound. The tubes naturally produce pleasing harmonics but each stage (Pentode and Triode) are voiced to produce more and more harmonics and eventually saturation as you drive them harder. Now there is an exception, the 5751 was designed to have a mu of 70, and a plate resistance identical to a AX, the 5751 tube was specifically designed to be a lower-gain, plug-in replacement for the 12AX7. But in fact a conventional follower may have a substantial distortion. 3% to 8-895 xyz 330 201 scb6 second mixer c 00 c2'6 v12a s econo receiver r 10 150k. With a shunt reg PS it works really. But, if it sounds great that is all that really matters. Cathode follower circuits are said to lend the tone a special flavor, as a number of classic guitar amps would go to show. 0: 6AS7G(2) 3: 2A3 Single Ended cathode follower drive amplifier: 12AT7,6P3P: 166: Transformer Coupled Cathode Follower Driver Stage 6DRT. For the ‘modern’ guitar player interested in a ‘raw’ tone for classic Rock ‘n’ Roll or Blues, these heads are still hard to beat. Typically 12AX7's have a heater to cathode limit of 150 to 180 volts. The 12AT7 is probably a cathode follower (or something like that, someone correct me if I’m wrong). I think the issue is mainly with the New Sensor made tubes with spiral filaments. Cathode follower - lowering cathode resistor for 12dw7 or ecc823. I wish everyone did business like you. As supplied, I liked the sound, but there were problems. After that, it was a series of amplifiers, including PP 6B4Gs and single-ended 2A3s. why low rp tubes and cathode follower circuit work for preamplifier output stage 왜 프리앰프 출력단에는 낮은 플레이트 내부저항을 가진 진공관이 필요할까요. 5 mH RF choke. 12A-series etc, preamps 12AT7, 12AY7, 12AX7, ECC81/3/4 you may as well go the whole hog and wire it in as a cathode-follower driver for the tonestack, or the. The first stage common cathode gain is 50, the second stage common cathode gain is 53, and the third stage buffer stage cathode follower gain is 0. [An example for the application of the cathode follower]. With the 3. The audio circuitry is executed entirely with precision, low noise metal film resistors. In true pentode operation, grid number 2 is at a fixed voltage relative to the cathode, even when the pentode is used a cathode follower circuit. But if it was cathode follower, and the load voltage was in series with the input voltage, then 1. It may be compared to a 12AT7 or a 6SN7 and it will work also with a supply voltage of +100VDC up. While the driver tube should be an ECC81 family member (12AT7, ECC801, 6201, CV4024, etc. I tried it in a line preamp, a headphone amp, as output stage in my CD player and in several guitar applications with good results. I have another Synthetic Tube Module for that usage in the testing stage. , Marshall)? Seems to me the 12AU7 side would work well in the buffer part, leaving the gain stage more or less unchanged. The far better one wa. Also, as the cathode voltage increases, the V2 grid remains fixed at its bias voltage. The drive signal is condenser coupled (C1) to X2, the grid of which is connected via a leak resistor (R2) to the lower end of a bias resistor (R3. 1% regulation also. Many of these diy Audio Books contain schematics. > cathode follower driving the diode might be useful. b) The Eden Bass amps: the use a permanently connected triode connected as a unity gain cathode follower, fed from the +/-70V (or thereabouts) rails, the same from the power amp. 4k will give an output voltage of 29 volts peak and a voltage gain of 12. The SVT's preamp uses the 12DW7 (half 12AX7, half 12AU7) with the "12AX7" side as a gain stage and the "12AU7" side as a cathode follower. Irfpg440 workaround is to drive the grid positively with a DC-coupled cathode follower or source or emitter follower or use an inter-stage signal transformer. · VFO 1/212AX7 12AT7 6U8 vox y,f,vox relay level RLA RV111 V21A V15B V12 2nd VOXamp. Summary of Styles and Designs. My point is that the RCA and Sylvania tube manual specify close to 300 volts of cathode/heater differential, which it's doubtful any guitar amp exceeds. Same high Gm (5500) as the 12AT7. Cheers,, Ian. This thing has 2 6V6 power tubes, 1 5Y3 rectifier, 1 12AT7 used in the phase splitter, and 1 12AX7 for the preamp section. But the 12AT7 and 12AU7 are rated for a max of around 1/2 that. When a Tung-Sol 12AX7 dies in a cathode follower with 30 volts on the cathode, or in a phase inverter where the cathode might be 80 volts over ground, then it's the tube, not the circuit. Basically, if you swap a 12AT7 into that circuit -- 300VDC supply; 100K plate resistor; 1. It's because running a 12AU7 or 12AT7 in a circuit designed for a 12AX7 biases them cold, damn near sterile. Real warm, clean sound. 0: 6AS7: 21: Amplifier for Dynamic Headphones: Some commentary. A switch (SW8) selects either the cathode follower (CF V3a) or the emitter follower (EF Q23). ), the cathode follower can be almost any small signal triode tube – almost, because once you choose the socket and the basing connections, there is little variation possible – 5687 is one example - and of course you have to keep in mind the operating. With the cathode follower, the output impedance would roughly equal to 1/(tube's transconductance). It's probably widely regarded that vacuum tubes require a fair few hundred volts to operate. By virtue of the three-position transfer switch (85 in Fig. 5 dB with a unbypassed cathode and ≈33v/v or 30. The third tube, a duo-triode 12AT7 V 3 functions as a phase inverter and push-pull output stage. Note: the price are not include all tubes! just one assembeld preamp board. Back to tubes / valves. In that case the plate resistors must be beefy enough to take them, and there are no cathode-follower positions, so you're OK. Cathode follower - lowering cathode resistor for 12dw7 or ecc823. Many believe that a cathode follower (or emitter, or source follower) has very low distortion due to a 100% negative feedback. The overall voltage gain of the circuit is about 8. The cathode resistor needs to be 220 ohms. Three 12AX7 tubes are used, two "V1" for Right & Left, and "V2" in Cathode Follower. When they are set up as cathode followers, the cathodes can see 150 to 200 volts depending on the design. was the originally supplied tube to Fender in the 1950s if you want to be period-correct. The VFO sits on top at the back in the middle of the whole rig. (note there is a missing 100k in this tonestack between the 560pF and the 0. Bootstrapping, grid-leak and input capacitor: Now we have set the upper triodes conditions we can work out what AC load it present to the lower triode. This is actually the anode to cathode voltage, so the true cathode voltage will be 285 - 100 = 185V. either as a gain stage or as whats called a cathode follower. Paul, can you explain why these circuits almost invariably have single ended emitter follower or cathode follower outputs, sometimes even plate or collector outputs instead of complimentary symmetry or quasi complimentary symmetry push pull outputs with hefty. Here are two views of the internals prior to stripping and rebuilding. New to the world, so just learning my way around. But in fact a conventional follower may have a substantial distortion. Phase Inverter: 2 x 7025 12AT7 (Long Tailed w/ Cathode Follower) Other: Active EQ: 12AU7. BEST 12AT7 REVERB DRIVER DOWNLOAD - It's a good choice when low price is of high importance. The Vackar series-tuned v. 2nd IFamp 112 12AX7 1/212AX7 6BA6. A conventional mu follower uses a resistor (R1) between the anode of X1 (gain valve) and the cathode of X2 (current source and cathode follower) across which the signal to drive X2 is developed. You can change tubes to vary the preamplifier gain. The SVT's preamp uses the 12DW7 (half 12AX7, half 12AU7) with the "12AX7" side as a gain stage and the "12AU7" side as a cathode follower. 1 - Cathode Bypass Caps We are here in the Power stage. The audio chain consists of 12AX7 double triodes with unbypassed cathodes feeding a 6DJ8 cathode follower. Miele French Door Refrigerators; Bottom Freezer Refrigerators; Integrated Columns – Refrigerator and Freezers. Other capacitors are ceramic. Without the ECC99 it would not be possible for the 12AT7 to produce sufficient current to run 4 KT90’s properly. 3 - Output is rated at 75 watts continuous per channel in Stereo or Twin configuration. The input signal passes through compensated attenuators and then into a 12AT7 cathode-follower stage. It's probably Dave Thompson who sent two spare 6414 mini triodes a type unknown to me. 5642 drivers 6au6 drivers 6 aus 6au6 ve04 v12 v13 v14 vert. In general terms, a lower output impedance will drive capacitive cables better, and will drive lowish input impedance power amps without bass roll off. The listening result feedback is different, sometimes excellent, sometimes so far so good and somebody said it is too sharp and a cathode follower should be added to make the sound warmer. 12AT7: preamp tube amplification 12AU7 (5963): Current source of 12AT7 (1st and 2nd tubes form an SRPP) 6922 (6Dj8): Preamp output tube (cathode follower) 12AT7: Power amp first stage 12AU7: Phase inverter and driver. € ECC83/E83CC/ECC803S TESLA€€ This valve was the Czech replica of the famous Telefunken ECC803S. " The Bloke's control layout is unusual but simple, and it's also easy to get to grips with. The sharp cut-off (18db per octave) rumble and high-frequency filters are associated with this section. 2 x 12AX7 + cathode follower (IRF820 source follower). The line section is a mu-follower using two 6SN7 sections per channel. There are only a few DHT preamps out there (you can just about count on one hand) and this is one of the few that utilize the 300B. When a Tung-Sol 12AX7 dies in a cathode follower with 30 volts on the cathode, or in a phase inverter where the cathode might be 80 volts over ground, then it's the tube, not the circuit. A 6SN7 in grounded-cathode mode with an 8mA constant-current source plate load will show less than 0. These would be the Sovtek LPS, Mullard long plate 12ax7 and Tung Sol 12ax7 reissues. Hifi tube preamp schematic. 43) Posted by Morse on 2001-12-19, 16:16:59 (158. Filament supply floated 80V above chassis ground for quieter operation and longer tube life. Both options provide good drive for the tone stack, but the CF adds distortion, while the EF does not. The Sovtek 12AX7LP/LPS series has a large plate format that gives a large soundstage with a lot of detail. Ecc99 datasheet Ecc99 datasheet. The output stage may be configured for either a 300B tube or 2A3 tube using cathode bias. and this is why it is ideal for directly coupled cathode followers. the 12AZ7 and the 12AT7 have the same gain-factor, but supposedly the 12AZ7 is more practical than the 12AT7 just because the AZ7 take a peak Heater-Cathode voltage of 200V compared to the 90v the AT7 can handle. 2 x 12AT7 – First-stage amplifier 2 x 12AU7 – Current supply for first-stage amplifier 2 x 6DJ8/6922 – Output stage cathode follower 6 x 12AX7 – Phono preamplifier section IMPORTANT: USING YOUR VACUUM TUBE PREAMPLIFIER • Do not unplug an interconnect while the preamplifier is on. org - wht org-wht red-red-wht vox iom r. cathode follower). With a shunt reg PS it works really. 00 USD; Treble-Boost Normal Gain $50. It is also at its best, when used as a cathode follower. I also used a direct-coupled cathode follower 12AT7 after the 12AX7 phase inverter to really drive the power tubes - similar to the old SVT bass amps. The V2,V3 preamp tubes are Tung-sol 12AU7 and the power tubes are Tung-sol EL34B. A 12AU7 can take a much higher amount of plate current than a 12AX7 so by substituting the "12AU7" side, you increase the gain and lower the headroom, and an SVT already has TONS of gain. Dc Circuit Circuit Diagram Valve Amplifier Audio Amplifier Hobby Electronics Electronics Projects Wireless Battery Charger Electronic Packaging Power Supply Circuit. Share this post: This entry was posted in 12at7/ECC81 by tubemaze. If this were my amp I would probably change the tone stack myself, maybe set it up like an old Marshall by adding a cathode follower circuit. Contact [email protected] to discuss your application specifically. The cathode follower stage uses its very low impedance to drive the tone circuit, but it also contributes a lot to the distortion. Mullard ecc82. Usually 12AX7's have a limitation on the heater voltage (heaters are inside the cathodes) and the voltage on the cathode. Preamp tubes are cathode-biased (well, after the '50's anyway) but a big jump in plate resistance will put the. These circuits are independently powered by grand scale, low ripple and low impedance power supply sections supporting high purity amplification stages. com 303-955-2412 the 12AT7 is rated H-K +/- 90V peak. by a cathode follower which maintains open loop phase linearity at high frequencies. 6N16B-V double triode tube is best used for amplification stages where not so big amplification factors are needed but high.

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